Hyperpigmentation is one of the common skin ailments that causes dark patches of uneven color on your skin. These brown spots, more or less numerous and extensive, are concentrated on the parts of the body exposed to the sun: face, cleavage, back, etc. Hyperpigmentation of the skin presents no danger.
However, many people want to reduce or remove their brown spots for aesthetic reasons. There are different melasma treatments today that have proven their effectiveness: laser, flash lamp, Hyperpigmentation cream, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen, and so on.
Now, let’s move forward in order to understand what are Hyperpigmentation and its various types.
What is Hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation results from an overproduction of melanin in certain cutaneous zones.
It is a defense mechanism of the skin against the sun: in response to UV exposure, specific cells of the epidermis called melanocytes that produce a brown pigment, melanin, which stains the skin uniformly.
But it happens that this coloration becomes excessively anarchic: produced in excess in some areas, melanin accumulates, and the skin takes a darker coloration locally. This is called Hyperpigmentation: more or less large brown spots form, which contrasts with the surrounding skin that is clearer. These spots are painless and benign but often considered unsightly.
Here are the causes that due to which Hyperpigmentation occur:
- Allergic Reactions
- Inflammation Caused by Sunlight
- Hormonal Changes after Pregnancy
The Different Types of Hyperpigmentation
There are several, but the most common are:
- Freckles: They are usually seen in fair-skinned people and are small brown spots that get darken and multiply when exposed to the sun. These spots are of genetic origin.
- Lentigos: These are usually small, dark, round or oval spots. Lentigines may be age-related (senile lentigo or age spots) or excessive sun exposure (solar or actinic lentigo). This is why they appear mainly on frequently exposed body parts, such as the face, hands, and arms.
- Melasma: It is linked to hormonal changes and aggravated by exposure to the sun. Melasma results in the appearance of brown sheets distributed symmetrically on the forehead, nose, and cheeks. It affects more frequently brown people with matte skin. Melasma is particularly common in pregnant women: it is called “pregnancy mask” or “chloasma,” and it usually disappears a few months after delivery. It can also be formed by taking an oral contraceptive.
- Post-inflammatory Hyperpigmentation: It appears after an attack on the skin when a lesion heals leaving a stain (acne scars, burns, rubbing glasses on the nose). This type of Hyperpigmentation is particularly noticeable on the matte or dark skin, which is richer in melanin.
After reading this, you might be wondering that how to get rid of Hyperpigmentation. There are numerous ways to get relieved of this issue. All you need to do is consult your dermatologist.